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Feedback

5 min read

It's Tuesday as I write this, and as I happen to be doing a workshop on feedback tomorrow, I thought I'd be lazy and share some of the key content as my Wednesday post on assessment. I've organised my session around the three categories of Why? - How? - What? (inspired by Shove, Pantzar and Watson's SPT (social practice theory) framework), before we give it a try as a class. The aim is to give effective feedback as efficiently as possible; as we all know, it's tiring and time-consuming work, and sometimes it feels like our efforts just disappear into a black hole!

 

Why feedback?

Feedback is integral to formative assessment, which, as we already know from Black & Wiliam, can result in significant learning gains, helps low achievers in particular, and can cultivate active and collaborative learners. It therefore supports self-directed learning and 21st century competencies.

 

How can we give effective feedback?

Here's a great image based on this article.

5 research-based tips for providing students with meaningful feedback

This work by rebe_zuniga is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic Licence.

More tips I've gathered from various articles (including some tweeted by Dr Carless):

  1. Build trust: make learners feel safe to fail, so that they take risks, and allow us to see what help and feedback is needed
  2. Promote a growth mindset: as per Carol Dweck -- as Dylan Wiliam says 'smart is not something you are, smart is something you get'
  3. Develop a dialogue: instead of writing mini-essays learners might never read in earnest, engage our learners in a dialogue
  4. Forget the sandwich: the feedback sandwich can seem condescending or manipulative; be honest and constructive instead
  5. Focus on task, not ego: we don't need the sandwich to protect the learner's fragile ego if we focus on the task rather than the person
  6. Eliminate grades/marks: or delay releasing them if we can't -- research shows learners tend to ignore feedback if both are given
  7. Assess one criterion per task: we risk overwhelming the learner if we try to assess everything at once -- focus on one thing at a time, and let the learner know in advance so that they know where to direct their efforts
  8. Feed it forward: what next? how can the learner apply this feedback in future work?
  9. Make it actionable: can it be applied? or is it beyond the ability of the learner?
  10. Work less than the learner: resist correcting everything for the learner -- we want to encourage them to take responsibility and ownership, and to develop self-directed learning capabilities
  11. Cultivate feedback literacy: why is feedback important, and how do we use feedback to improve what we do?
  12. Activate peers: peer feedback can be more effective than ours, and learners learn twice when they give feedback, helping them internalise the qualities of a good performance and self-assess
  13. Share range of feedback: learners improve their awareness when they see what others have done well or poorly
  14. Incorporate regular reflection: reflection helps learners develop themselves as self-assessors and self-directed learners, and helps us understand better the kind of feedback our learners are in need of

 

What can we use?

I've thought of 10 tools but maybe you have more to suggest.

  1. Analytic rubrics/scoring: this is usually in the form of a grid, and breaks performance down into criteria
  2. Marking symbols: commonly used in assessing writing (e.g. SP = spelling error) 
  3. Master list of comments: keeping a list of frequent comments that we can 'recycle' by copying and pasting; this can include links to resources such as YouTube content
  4. Google Drive: the Swiss Army knife of digital feedback tools; easily build a feedback dialogue -- check out Doctopus which turbocharges what is already a powerful tool
  5. Voice recordings: can result in better uptake; easy on Google Docs with Kaizena (not so easy on Word)
  6. Google Forms: great for eyeballing answers collated onto a spreadsheet and quick individual comments as feedback; allows learners to see range of anwers and feedback
  7. Spreadsheets: as part of Google Form or by itself; helps us be consistent with both feedback and comments; easily mail merge feedback to learners
  8. Screenshot annotations: sometimes we need to show, not tell; I really like Awesome Screenshot because it plays well with Google Drive
  9. Screencasting: sometimes we need to show and tell; Screencastify is one of many options out there (free and works with Chromebooks)
  10. YouTube: with a webcam, we can easily video ourselves giving feedback and upload it immediately as a public or private video for sharing

 

I can't profess to be a model of a good 'feedbacker', but I do consider feedback on my feedback seriously and reflect on my own practices (even as I write this). Have you got other tips or strategies to share? What has worked and not worked for you?